When building a structure, brickmasons use one of 2 techniques, either the corner lead or the corner pole. Using the corner lead technique, they start by making a pyramid of bricks at every cornercalled a lead.
Because of the precision required, corner leads are time-intensive to erect and require the abilities of experienced bricklayers. They fasten the corner poles ( posts ) in a plumb position to outline the wall line and stretch a line between them. This line serves as a guide for each course of brick.
Brickmasons then spread a bed of mortar ( a cement, lime, sand, and water mix ) with a spade ( a flat, bladed metal tool with a handle ), place the brick on the mortar bed, and press and tap the brick into place. Mortar joints are then finished with jointing tools for a sealed, neat, uniform appearance.
After a structure is finished there's still work that regularly must be done. Pointing, cleaning, and caulking workers can be the final workers on a job or the first workers on a restoration project. These employees use chemicals to wash the laid materials to give the structure a finished appearance.
Older structures also need to be redecorated as the mortar or binding agents break down. In a lot of cases a grinder or blade is used to rigorously take the old mortar. Special care is taken to not damage the main structural integrity or the bricks, blocks, or stone.
Depending on how much mortar is being replaced and how, it may take many applications to permit the new mortar to heal correctly.
These same masons replace and correct damaged masonry materials as part of the building's restoration process. Stonemasons build stone walls, and set stone exteriors and floors. Stonemasons regularly work from a collection of drawings, in which each stone has been numbered for identification.
Assistants may locate and carry these prenumbered stones to the masons. A crane operator employing a hoist might be wanted to lift massive stone pieces into place.
When building a stone wall, masons set the first course of stones into a shallow bed of mortar. They then align the stones with wedges, plumb lines, and levels, and work them into position with numerous tools. Masons continue to build the wall by swapping layers of mortar and courses of stone.
To carry massive stones in effect stonemasons attach brackets to the stone and weld or bolt these brackets to anchors in the wall.
Ultimately , masons wash the stone with a cleaning solution to get rid of stains and dry mortar. When setting stone floors, which frequently consist of giant and heavy pieces of stone, masons first employ a spade to spread a layer of damp mortar over the surface to be covered.
Using crowbars and hard rubber mallets for aligning and leveling, they then set the stone in the mortar bed. To end, employees fill the joints and clean the stone slabs.
Masons employ a special hammer and chisel to chop stone. They cut stone along the grain to make varied shapes and sizes, and valuable pieces frequently are cut with a saw which has a diamond blade. Some masons specialize in setting marble which, in several respects, is analogous to setting big pieces of stone.
Brickmasons and stonemasons also fix defects and cracks, and replace damaged or missing masonry units in walls and floors. Most nonresidential buildings now are built with walls made from concrete block, brick veneer, stone, granite, marble, tile, or glass.
They also install a selection of masonry anchors and other masonry-associated accessories employed in plenty of highrise buildings. Masons stand, kneel, and bend for long periods and regularly have to lift heavy materials.